Venus: India Starting Their New Mission on This Planet

Venus is equal to Earth in size and structure, though its spin direction differs significantly from most planets. Venus’s thick atmosphere traps heat for hours to produce a powerful greenhouse effect that can melt lead. Furthermore, you can find deformed volcanoes and mountains underneath its cloud cover.

Venus was named to honour Aphrodite, an ancient Roman goddess often revered in Ancient Greek culture as the goddess of beauty and love. Many features associated with her were named for women.

What Is The Origin Of Venus’s Name?

Ancient Romans could easily see seven bright objects: the Sun, Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, and five planets with the brightest stars as their namesakes.

Venus was named for Roman goddesses associated with beauty and love, making her one of only three planets to bear such a name.

Venus Facts

Here are some most interesting facts about Venus Planet.

Distance from the Sun: 108,000,000 kilometres (67,000,000 miles), which is 38% closer than Earth to the Sun.

Diameter: Earth is only 5% wider than 12,104 kilometres (7.5221 miles).

Volume: Earth could fit Venus in 1.1 times its size (928 billion km3 or 223 billion mi3).

Gravity: 8.9 m/s2, 90% of Earth’s gravity

Solar day: 117 Earth days

Solar Year: Earth Day 225

Atmosphere: 96% Carbon dioxide, 3% Nitrogen, 1% Other Gases

Potential for Life

Temperatures range from 30 to 70 Celsius at 50 miles above Earth, ideal conditions for Earthly life such as “extremophile microbes.” At that height, atmospheric pressure resembles that found here.

Another change can be seen at the top of Venus’ clouds, which are buffeted by winds reaching 360 kph (224 mph).

Scientists have yet to understand how persistent, dark streaks can remain intact despite hurricane-force winds; additionally, they appear to absorb UV radiation as if by magic.

Of the many possible explanations for these streaks on Venus, most likely include fine particles, ice flakes, or iron chloride. Astrobiologists who study microbes in Venus’ atmosphere have considered another possibility as less likely; it could be microbes.

Astrobiologists have noted how sulphur atoms arranged as rings may protect microbes from sulfuric acid while acting as chemical shields against ultraviolet light before emitting visible light rays from beneath these protective cloaks.

Russian Venera probes found particles approximately one micron long in Venus’ lower atmospheric layer – comparable in size to an Earth bacterium.

These findings do not offer conclusive proof of life on Venus; however, their questions regarding its vanished ocean, violently lava-covered surface, and long history make a compelling argument for missions to investigate this unpredictable sister planet. Venus may indeed hold much wisdom to teach us.

Size and Distance

Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of 67 million miles, 10,8 million kilometres, 0.72 astronomical units, or 0.72 of an AU.

By comparison, Earth and the Sun are one AU apart, and sunlight takes around six minutes to travel from these distances to reach Venus.

Earth’s relationship to Venus can be seen from various angles. Venus is nearly as big as our planet – measuring 7,521 miles (12.104 kilometres), while we cover approximately the same distance.

Venus was considered an important object by ancients, who considered it as two separate stars: morning and evening stars – showing why perspective matters greatly when considering Earth-Venus relations.

Venus’s orbit is much closer to that of Earth than ours, so they never move far apart from each other. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks observed Venus from two distinct angles.

First was her orbital position visible during morning hours, and later at different times of year (i.e., your evening Venus).

Venus lies approximately 61 million km (38 million miles) from Earth. At the same time, Mercury, being closer, spends more time near us than Venus does.

One other trick involves looking at Venus through binoculars or telescopes: You will discover that, much like our Moon, Venus too has phases: Full, half-full, quarter… taking 584 days from new to full cycle (compared with only 30 for our Moon!). Galileo first observed these phases through his telescope, demonstrating the Copernican heliocentrism of our solar systems.

Orbit and Rotation

A day on Venus can be disorienting unless you wear protective clothing that could keep temperatures below 900 deg F900 degrees at bay. Your “day” on Venus would last 243 Earth Days, even longer than its year long orbit of the Sun, which takes only 225 Earth Days!

A planet with very slow rotation would require 117 Earth Days from sunrise to sunset since Venus rotates oppositely to Earth; that means sunrise would occur in the west while sunset would occur in the east.

As long as Earth remains tilted at 23 degrees, our hemisphere (the part with more direct sun rays during summer and less direct ones during winter due to this tilt) will remain vulnerable.

Venus, however, doesn’t share our luck; its slight tilt of only three degrees cannot create seasons.


Venus does not have a moon.


Venus does not have rings.


Venus and Earth would look strikingly alike if cut in half from pole to pole and placed next to one another. Each planet is composed of a hot rock mantle encasing an iron core.

At the same time, their exterior crusts comprise the thinnest skins, which change shape with heat and pressure below, occasionally even giving birth to volcanoes!

Subduction, the sliding of one continental “plate” underneath another, could have played an early role in Venus’ history. Subduction often triggers volcanic eruptions, thus making this step one of the creation of plate tectonics.

NASA’s Magellan, which completed a five-year journey to Venus in 1994, used radar mapping technology to map its surface.

Magellan saw evidence of extreme volcanism, geologically recently altered terrain, and towering mountain ranges on Venus.


Soviet Russia launched several probes as part of their Venera program between 1961 and 1984 in an attempt to explore Venus (Venera is Russian for Venus).

Ten probes reached Venus’ surface, with only some lasting an extended period; two survived for two hours, while 23 died shortly after arriving; photos from before their demise show barren landscapes with rugged terrain and yellowish sulphur skies.

Venus has undergone significant resurfacing due to volcanic eruptions and tectonic movements, and computer models indicate this may have taken place gradually over time – perhaps 150 million years. Surface features may still exist today, though older surfaces could also be present.

Venus is covered with volcanoes scattered through its valleys and mountains. At the same time, its surface features are named for mythical and real women.

Ishtar Terra is roughly equivalent to Australia in size and shape near the north pole; Aphrodite Terra covers an area approximately the size and shape of South America stretching across the equator; one mountain there towers higher than Mount Everest at 36,000 feet! Of all rocky planets except Earth, Venus boasts the least impact craters.

The Venus landscape also includes:

  • The volcanic crater is named after Sacajawea, the Native American guide of Lewis and Clark.
  • Diana, the Roman goddess of hunting, is the name given to a deep canyon.
  • Pancake-shaped domes, with steep sides and flat tops up to 38 miles (62 km), are likely the result of the extrusion or highly viscous lava.
  • From above, “Tick” domes are odd, elongated volcanoes with radiating spurs. They look like the blood-sucking creatures they were named after.
  • Tesserae is a terrain that has intricate patterns with ridges and grooves. The pattern suggests that the rock acts more like peanut butter under a thin layer of chocolate on Venus.


Venus is a planet of extremes; its surface temperatures rival Earth and Mercury combined! Carbon dioxide dominates Venus’ atmosphere and drives the greenhouse effect that affects Earth as well;

Cloud formation is made up of sulfuric acids, while hot, high-pressure carbon dioxide acts corrosively at its surface; as temperatures and pressure increase, they begin to subside.


Venus differs significantly from Earth in that its magnetic field does not originate internally; rather, an induced magnetic force created through the interaction between solar magnetism and Venus’ outer atmosphere creates its weak magnetic field.

Ultraviolet light from the Sun excites gases in Venus’ outermost atmospheric layer to form electrically charged molecules called ions, giving rise to what is known as the Ionosphere region.

The solar wind, an endlessly streaming mass of electrically charged particles from the Sun, carries its magnetic field with it.

When these magnetic fields interact with Venus’s electrically charged ionosphere, they create or induce magnetic fields around its perimeter in an almost teardrop or comet tail shape as solar winds blow past it.

Missions On Venus Planet

Here you see All missions on venus planet like Active, Past & Future Missions.

Active Missions

In 2015, the Japanese Akatsuki spacecraft entered orbit around Venus to search for clues about how its atmosphere functions.

Previous Missions to Venus

Venus Express

Venus Express, an instrument of the European Space Agency, studied the planet’s atmosphere and ionosphere. This allowed scientists to make important conclusions about its surface.


NASA’s MESSENGER rocket flew by Venus twice as it headed to Mercury.


Cassini, a NASA-European Space Agency mission that travelled to Saturn from Venus, visited Venus twice.


NASA’s Magellan spacecraft mapped Venus with a radar resolution of at least 100 metres.


NASA’s Galileo Spacecraft uses Venus’ gravity to alter its trajectory as it heads to Jupiter.

Vega 1 and Vega 2

The Soviet Union’s identical Vega 1 & 2 probes, on their way to Halley’s comet, deployed balloons in Venus’ atmosphere to measure temperature, pressure, and wind speed, as well as visibility, while they floated about the planet.

Venera 15 and Venera 16

Venera 15 & 16 produced a radar map for Venus throughout an 8-month joint mission. The two spacecraft mapped the area between Venus’ north pole and about 30 degrees latitude.

Venera 13 Venera 14

Venera 13 and 14, identical landers, were designed to explore the surface of Venus. Venera 13 sent back the first colour images of the surface. They revealed an orange-brown bedrock with thin, angular stones and loose regolith.

Venera 11 Venera 12

Venera 11 & 12 Soviet spacecraft studied Venus’s atmosphere and landed on its surface. The lens caps on the spacecraft could not be removed, so they could not return colour images.

They found evidence of thunder and lightning in Venus’s atmosphere and carbon monoxide low up.

Pioneer 1 and Pioneer 2

NASA’s Pioneer Venus Mission sent two spacecraft to study the planet. Pioneer 1 was a radar mapping orbiter, while Pioneer 2 comprised four atmospheric probes. One probe could continue transmitting data over an hour after impacting the surface.

Venera 10

On October 23, 1975, the Venera 10 spacecraft was separated into two sections – an orbiter and a lander. The Venera 10 lander landed on Venus’ surface two days after the Venera 9 landing, 2,200 km away. It was within a 150 km (93 miles) radius between 15.42deg. N. and 291.51deg. E.

Venera 9

On October 20, 1975, the Venera 9 Lander separated from its orbiter and successfully reached Venus two days later – becoming the first spacecraft ever to send images taken directly from another planet’s surface.

Landing within 150 kilometres (93 miles), near coordinates 31.01deg N and 291.64deg E, it transmitted photos back home and data regarding clouds, atmosphere composition, and light levels – relayed by an orbiter that also studied cloud structure on Venus.

Mariner 10

Launched on November 3, 1973

Venus flyby with gravity assist: February 5, 1974

Mariner 10 passed Venus to get a gravity boost towards Mercury. It flew within 4200 kilometres of Venus (2,600 miles) and took its first ultraviolet images.

Venera 8

Venera 8 decelerated after reaching Venus and deployed its parachute. A cooling unit protected its components from heat during landing on Venus.

Venera then transmitted data back to EarthEarth for 50 minutes, confirming high surface temperatures and crushing atmospheric pressure levels on Venus as well as measuring light levels to determine that surface photography could occur, setting the stage for images being sent back by Venera 9,10,13 and 14 spacecraft later on.

Venera 7

Venera 7 made history when it landed, using its parachute to descend to the surface and landing only 35 minutes after taking off – perhaps due to high winds causing its parachute to be damaged during descent.

After 23 minutes of weak transmissions back home from another planet’s surface, Venera 7 became the first spacecraft ever to send data back and report temperatures 475 degrees Celsius higher than Earth and atmospheric pressure 90 times greater.

Cosmos 167, Cosmos 359, and Cosmos 482

The rockets that were supposed to launch these spacecraft into orbit failed, and none could reach the required trajectory to take them to Venus.

Venera 5 and Venera 6

Venera 5/6 spacecraft arrived at Venus within one day of each other, then deployed their parachutes to descend through its atmosphere.

Each Venera spacecraft transmitted data for approximately 50 minutes before succumbing to atmospheric pressure and becoming inoperable.

Venera 5 & 6 enabled us to gain greater insight into Venus’ atmosphere and confirm its predominant carbon dioxide composition.

Mariner 5

Mariner 5 flew to within a distance of 4,000 km (2,400 miles) from the tops of Venusian clouds. The spacecraft’s surface temperature was 267 degrees Celsius during its flyby.

Venera 4

Venera 4 launched several instruments into Venus’ atmosphere, such as a barometer and thermometer. Venera 4 received data from probes that it dropped into the atmosphere before descending using parachute descent as it descended through its parachute descent sequence.

Initial readings suggested Venera 4 measured all of Venus’ atmosphere; however, further analysis revealed it was damaged nearly 25 kilometres by crushing atmosphere pressure; subsequent analysis also showed carbon dioxide-dominated temperatures of 40C-280C were reported from these probes.

Venera 3

Venera 3 is the first spacecraft that has landed on another planet (impacted), but no data was returned. The spacecraft is believed to have been destroyed by the thick atmosphere of Venus and the crushing pressure as it approached the surface.

Venera 2

Venera 2 flew within 24,000 km (about 14,900 mi) of Venus in February 1966. However, communications with the spacecraft were lost shortly before approaching the planet.

Zond 1

The spacecraft lost communication with Earth while it was on its way towards Venus.

Cosmos 27

The rocket that was supposed to launch the spacecraft into orbit failed to reach the required trajectory.

Venera 1964A & 1964B

Venera 1964A/B spacecraft of the Soviet Union never made it into orbit because their rockets failed.

Sputnik 19, Sputnik 20, and Sputnik 21

Sputnik 19, 20, and 21 probes launched by the Soviet Union were unsuccessful because of failures in their final stages.

Mariner 2

Mariner 2 is the first spacecraft that successfully flew by Venus at an altitude of 34,773 km (21,607 mi). The spacecraft detected temperatures on the ground as high as 800 degrees Fahrenheit (428 degrees Celsius).

Other instruments did not detect any atmospheric water vapour or magnetic field. On January 3, 1963, radio contact was lost.

Mariner 1

After launch, NASA’s Mariner 1 drifted off course and was destroyed by ground controllers.

Venera 1

When communications were lost with Venera 1, the Soviet Union’s Venera spacecraft, it was on its journey to Venus.

Sputnik 7

Sputnik 7, the Soviet Union’s Venus mission, was the first Venus mission in history. Sputnik 7’s rocket’s last stage failed, and it couldn’t follow the required trajectory to take it to Venus.

Future Missions on Venus Missions 

  1. India plans to launch an orbiter called Shukrayaan for Venus by December 2024. Equipped with radar and infrared cameras to map its surface, this spacecraft will orbit Venus at 200 x 600 kilometres for four years from an orbit 200 x600 kilometres away; its payload should reach 100 kilograms; it may host both Indian and international scientific instruments; France and Russia have collaborated in designing one called VIRAL (Venus Infrared Atmospheric Gases Linker).
  2. NASA’s DAVINCI Mission, scheduled to launch in 2029, comprises an orbiter and atmospheric descent probe that can precisely measure Venus’ atmosphere to understand it better. These measurements may reveal key clues as to its composition that help support scientific theories regarding Venus.
  3. NASA will not launch the VERITAS orbiter until 2031, featuring an ultrasensitive radar instrument that will enable scientists to gain greater insights into Venus’ geology, evolution, and why there is a lack of large-scale plate tectonic activity.
  4. EnVision, an ESA mission, will launch no sooner than 2031 and give a complete view of Venus from its core up through its upper atmosphere.


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